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Details of Grant 

EPSRC Reference: EP/N509863/1
Title: Low cost storage of renewable energy
Principal Investigator: Bhagat, Dr R
Other Investigators:
Dashwood, Professor RJ
Researcher Co-Investigators:
Project Partners:
Department: WMG
Organisation: University of Warwick
Scheme: Technology Programme
Starts: 16 December 2015 Ends: 15 December 2018 Value (£): 131,048
EPSRC Research Topic Classifications:
Energy Storage
EPSRC Industrial Sector Classifications:
Related Grants:
Panel History:  
Summary on Grant Application Form
Faraion, Moixa Technology and the University of Warwick propose to collaborate to jointly develop a sodium-ion battery, as

a lower cost alternative to lithium-ion. This as an innovative energy storage solution in tandem with solar energy.

Storing electrical energy in battery banks for release at peak times has the befit of reducing emissions, as does coupling

this with solar energy. Security of supply is improved as switching to solar PV and battery back-up provides support to the

grid when other forms of power generation go offline for any reason. Sodium is a lower cost, more abundant hence

sustainable material than lithium as it is more abundant in the earth's crust. Sodium carbonate is on tenth of the cost of

lithium carbonate.

In this project The University of Warwick will utilise facilities and technologists within its partly government funded Energy

Innovation Centre (EIC) which has been established to provide industry with a capability to take arising battery chemistries

from small scale through to representative prototype sizes. The EIC features electrode mixing and coating equipment which

incorporates the latest technology for producing high quality, accurate electrodes. Although principally designed with

lithium-ion technology in mind, sodium-ion represents a "drop-in" technology that can use all of the same fabrication

processes to produce electrodes and cells, this makes sodium-ion an attractive proposition for existing lithium-ion cell

manufacturers and this aids the exploitation route and dissemination of output from the project. This will enable efficient

adoption of next generation energy storage. Faradion has demonstrated cell performance of their materials as being

compatible to commercial lithium-ion cells in terms of cycle life, energy density and rate capability. This project will take the

technology from its current position at TRL3 to TRL5 and validate prototype batteries.

The Energy Innovation Centre is part of WMG. WMG is a department of the University of Warwick that was established by

Professor Lord Kumar Bhattacharyya in 1980 in order to reinvigorate UK manufacturing and improve competitiveness

through the application of value-adding innovation and cutting-edge research. Professor Lord Bhattacharyya has published

extensively in the field of manufacturing and is a highly influential advisor to many organisations around the world. WMG is

now a world-renowned centre of excellence operating an international programme of research, education and knowledge

transfer amounting to £100m a year. WMG works closely with UK regional development agencies to support the delivery of

their economic strategies and also with global corporations to train executives and to develop technologies for markets


The University of Warwick will work directly with Faradion to optimise the sodium-ion electrodes for cycle life for this

application. Electrodes will be produced which can be converted into battery cells for life-cycle testing at an early stage of

the project to provide feedback for process optimisation. Accelerated aging concepts based on predictive modelling and

EIS (electrochemical impedance Spectroscopy) on cell testing at the coin cell level will be introduced by experts in this field

at UoW to shorten the feedback time of life cycle evaluation so improvements in electrode production can be introduced at

accelerated rates.

The aim of the research is to provide the highest quality sodium-ion cell electrodes optimised for this standby storage

application. The benefit to the academic community is the dissemination of practical research which accelerates the

adoption of sodium-ion battery technology into a high value manufacturing environment. The commercialisation strategy is

to license the sodium-ion technology IP to battery manufacturers but also to supply low cost energy storage systems

through Moixa Technology to end users.
Key Findings
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Potential use in non-academic contexts
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Date Materialised
Sectors submitted by the Researcher
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Project URL:  
Further Information:  
Organisation Website: http://www.warwick.ac.uk