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Details of Grant 

EPSRC Reference: EP/N508494/1
Title: Innovative Forging and Fabrication Solutions for the Energy Sector
Principal Investigator: Wynne, Professor BP
Other Investigators:
Palmiere, Professor E Jackson, Professor M
Researcher Co-Investigators:
Project Partners:
Department: Materials Science and Engineering
Organisation: University of Sheffield
Scheme: Technology Programme
Starts: 01 July 2015 Ends: 30 June 2018 Value (£): 119,903
EPSRC Research Topic Classifications:
Energy - Nuclear Materials testing & eng.
EPSRC Industrial Sector Classifications:
Manufacturing Energy
Related Grants:
Panel History:  
Summary on Grant Application Form
The contribution from the University of Sheffield to the "Innovative Forging and Fabrication Solutions for the Nuclear

Industry" project will be on the modelling and its validation of the welding process and development and property validation

of post weld heat treatment schedules using the heat treatment simulator produced in EP/L50466X/1. This will be

undertaken by Prof Wynne, Dr Palmiere, and Dr Jackson in collaboration with a PhD Student, supported by the grant. Thus

the aim of the project in its broadest sense is: Development of quality heat treatment schedules for thick sectioned welds.

This will be achieved by the following four work packages.

Work Package 1: Validate Finite Element Model of Thick Section Welds produced using Reduced Pressure Electron Beam

Welding (Phd Student, UoS, TWI, SFIL)

This includes determination of temperature distribution during welding, size of weld zone, size of heat affected zone,

cooling rates, and residual stress distribution. Furthermore, material type sensitivity will be investigated from current

nuclear grade steels through to next generation materials.

Work Package 2: Microstructure Evaluation of As-Welded Microstructure. (PhD Student, UoS)

A detailed investigation of the as-welded microstructure in terms of alloy segregation, weld zone sizes, grain size,

transformation product, etc will be undertaken using optical and electron microscopy. Results will be compared to the modelling results produced in WP1

Work Package 3: Development of Potential Heat Treatment Schedules for As-Welded Materials. (PhD Student, UoS, SFIL)

Review of literature on potential heat treatment schedules for welded materials, concentrating on issues relating to the

general physical metallurgy, welding methodologies and metallurgical challenges, as well as NDT evaluation techniques.

The project has already identified the steel compositions, and so this particular task should be highly focused, identifying

material and post-production issues. Thermodynamic modelling of the steel compositions will indicate the phases and

phase fractions expected. Initial risks associated with the use of the steel compositions will also be assessed.

Work Package 4: Application of Identified Heat Treatment Schedules in the Heat Treatment Simulator. (PhD Student, UoS,


Following on from the outcomes of WP3, the chosen heat treatment schedules will be undertaken on as welded material

using the heat treatment simulator. Mechanical property evaluation will be in the form of tensile tests, Charpy impact tests,

crack tip opening displacement tests, and hardness profiles. Microstructure characterisation will produce information on

phase fractions, segregation profiles, and microstructure type and uniformity using optical and scanning electron

microscopy. These results will then form the basis for large scale trials.

Work Package 5: Validate Linkage Between Chosen Heat Treatment and Actual Component. (PhD Student, UoS, SFIL)

This work package will compare and contrast simulated results, both mechanical and microstructure, with an actual

component. Extreme areas of the as-forged component will be investigated to ensure good variability coverage.

Microstructure at levels above optical, i.e. precipitation density, will be taken thus requiring advanced characterisation

methods such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
Key Findings
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Date Materialised
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Project URL:  
Further Information:  
Organisation Website: http://www.shef.ac.uk